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[英语]江西教师招聘考试英语备考资料——小学英语语法大全之时态

2017-03-22

来源:易公教育

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一般现在时

1、定义:表示经常发生或习惯性的动作、状态。句中通常有usually,often,every day,sometimes,always,at weekends,on Sundays等表示经常性时间的短语。

2、构成:

1)当谓语是be动词时,一般现在时的构成:主语+be动词+其他

如:I am a student.  He is Jim’s father.  They are from Japan.

2)当谓语是行为动词时,一般现在时的构成:

主语(非第三人称单数)+动词原形+其他

如:I often watch TV at the weekends.               

Mr Green and Mrs Green like collecting stamps.

主语(第三人称单数)+动词的第三人称单数形式+其他

如:Jim usually visits his grandparents on Sundays.

She sometimes goes to the park with her mother.   

3、动词三单形式的变化规则:

① 一般情况下,直接加s  如:read-reads,swim-swims

② 以s,x,sh,ch,o结尾,加es  如:wash-washes,watch-watches,do-does

③ 以辅音字母+y结尾,变y为i,再加es  如:study-studies,fly-flies

④ 不规则变化 如:have-has

4、一般现在时的句型转换:

肯定句

否定句

一般疑问句及回答

They watch TV

every day.

They don’t watch TV

every day.

Do they watch TV every day?

—Yes, they do. / No, they don’t.

She watches TV

every day.

She doesn’t  watch

TV every day.

Does she watch TV every day?

—Yes, she does. / No, she doesn’t.

 

现在进行时

1、定义:表示现在或现阶段正在进行或发生的动作。句中常有now,look,listen等词。

如:I am washing clothes now.

Look! Liu Tao is climbing the tree.

Listen! Jane is singing in the music room.

2、构成:be动词(am/is/are)+ 动词现在分词(V-ing)

3、动词现在分词构成:

① 一般是在动词原形后加ing

如:read-reading,drink-drinking,eat-eating,look-looking

② 以不发音的e结尾的动词,去掉e,再加ing

如:write-writing,make-making,ride-riding,take-taking

③ 以重读闭音节结尾,如末尾只有一个辅音字母,要双写这个字母,再加ing

如:sit-sitting,swim-swimming,put-putting,run-running,stop-stopping,get-getting,begin-beginning,jog-jogging,forget-forgetting

4、动名词其实就是动词的现在分词,它既有名词性质(可作主语),又有动词性质(可带宾语)。

如:Asking the way

My hobby is collecting stamps.

He is good at skating.

5、现在进行时的句型转换:

肯定句

否定句

一般疑问句及回答

He is running now.

He isn’t running now.

Is he running now?

 

—Yes, he is. / No, he isn’t.

They are making 

a puppet.

They aren’t making 

a puppet.

Are they making a puppet?

 

—Yes, they are. / No, they aren’t.


一般过去时

1、定义:表示过去某个时间里发生的动作或存在的状态。常和表示过去的时间状语连用,如:a moment ago,just now,yesterday,last week,this morning等。

如:My brother often went to school by bike last term.

The watch was beside the diary a moment ago.

I watched the moon and ate the moon cakes last Mid-Autumn Festival.

Jim went to the supermarket yesterday.

2、构成:主语动词的过去式其他

3、动词过去式的变化规则:

① 一般在动词原形末尾加ed

如:play-played,listen-listened,look-looked

② 结尾是e的动词,加d

如:live-lived,like-liked,taste-tasted

③ 辅音字母+y结尾的动词,变y为i,再加ed

如:study-studied,carry-carried,cry-cried

④ 末尾只有一个辅音字母的重读闭音节词,双写这个辅音字母,再加ed

如:stop-stopped,plan-planned

⑤ 不规则变化 如:

am/is-was

are-were

have/has-had

do-did

go-went

sit-sat

tell-told

see-saw

get-got

make-made

give-gave

read-read

buy-bought

come-came

draw-drew

eat-ate

fly-flew

meet-met

put-put

run-ran

say-said

sing-sang

swim-swam

take-took

4、一般过去时的句型转换

肯定句

否定句

一般疑问句及回答

He watched TV yesterday.

He didn’t watch TV yesterday.

Did he watch TV yesterday?

—Yes, he did. / No, he didn’t.

They played games just now.

They didn’t play games just now.

Did they play games just now?

—Yes, they did. / No, they didn’t.

 

一般将来时

1、定义:表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态,以及打算、计划或准备某事。句中一般含有表示将来的时间状语,如:tomorrow morning,next week,this afternoon等表示将来的时间状语。

2、构成:

be gong to +动词原形  

如:I am going to see a Beijing opera tomorrow.

We are going to meet at bus stop at half past ten.

Dad and I are going to see a Beijing opera this afternoon.

will +动词原形  

如:They will go swimming this afternoon.

3、be going to 和will 区别

① be going to表示经过事先安排、打算或决定要做的事情,基本上一定会发生;will则表示有可能去做,但不一定发生,也常表示说话人的临时决定。

如:I am going to take part in a party this evening.

They are cleaning the library now. I’ll go and join them.

②be going to表示近期或眼下就要发生的事情;will表示的将来时间则较远一些。如:He is going to write a letter tomorrow.   I will meet her one day.

③ be going to还可以用来表示有迹象表明某件事将要发生,常用于天气等自然现象。如:Look! It’s going to rain.

4、一般将来时句型转换:

肯定句

否定句

一般疑问句及回答

She is going to have a picnic tomorrow.

She isn’t going to have a picnic tomorrow.

Is she going to have a picnic tomorrow?

—Yes, she is. / No, she isn’t.

They will go swimming this afternoon.

They will not(won’t) go swimming this afternoon.

Will they go swimming this afternoon?

—Yes, they will. / No, they won’t.

 

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